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This book deals with the problems which occur when one or more parties in a
pipeline do not abide by some obligations agreed among them at the beginning
of the project. Such problems are most serious when geo-political, legal, or
economic developments lead governments to intervene, resulting in the breach
of a legitimate expectation of the stakeholders involved. Using regime theory
as an analytical tool, the author explores participant behaviour in seven
specific case studies that manifest different levels of enforcement to
constrain intervention. In the course of the analysis he covers such aspects
as the following:
the basic principles of freedom of transit, non-interference,
non-discrimination, and equal treatment; the government’s role as provider of
security and stability;
crucial importance of government credibility;
pipelines as national strategic assets;
land acquisition and appropriate compensation;
third party access;
transit tariffs and fees;
environmental and safety standards;
each country’s role in safeguarding the pipeline; and
the effect of new national oil and gas legislation in any country partner.
In the final analysis the author proposes the creation of an autonomous
unifying mechanism in the form of an agency with strong regime credentials. He
shows how such a body would reduce the level of intervention by government or
other parties in the pipeline regime, without interfering in the sovereignty
of any particular country. He clearly outlines the process through which the
agency would use its enforcement capabilities. As more and more pipelines are
being built all over the world, and as the nature of relations among energy
exporting, importing, and transit countries becomes ever more critical, this
book comes as a fresh and cogent approach to this very important subject. It
will be welcomed by all interested parties in oil and gas industry and
regulation, as well as by academics and officials in international relations.
About the Author.
List of Tables.
List of Figures.
List of Abbreviations.
Chapter 1 Introduction.
Chapter 2 The Analytical Framework.
Chapter 3 The Characteristics of Cross-Border Pipelines.
Chapter 4 Strong Regimes.
Chapter 5 Moderately Strong Regimes.
Chapter 6 The Weak Regimes.
Chapter 7 The Existing Regulatory and Enforcement Mechanisms.
Chapter 8 Towards a New Framework for Cross-Border Pipelines: The
International Pipeline Agency (IPA).
Chapter 9 Conclusion.